Novel quantum effects are found in natural bilayer graphene, which is expected to promote the resear
The African Development Bank will finance $25 billion by 2025 to support Africa's fight against climate change, the bank's president said at the bank's annual meeting in Accra, Ghana.
He noted that climate change has had many negative impacts on the continent, causing natural disasters such as droughts, cyclones, and floods. Climate change costs Africa between $7 billion and $15 billion a year. "Africa has no choice but to address climate change."
To ensure Africa's food supply, the African Development Bank has delivered climate-friendly seeds to 12 million farmers in 27 countries in the past two years under the "Technology for Agricultural Change in Africa" program, he said.
In the area of renewable energy, the African Development Bank is implementing a $20 billion "Desert Power" initiative in the Sahel that is expected to power 250 million people, he said.
US President Joe Biden recently wrapped up his five-day trip to Asia with a summit of leaders of the "Quad" security Dialogue.
Biden has promoted a number of economic and security cooperation initiatives during his visit aimed at deepening ties with Indo-Pacific Allies and partners in response to China's growing influence in the region. Some analysts in the United States believe the most significant announcement may be an initiative to share maritime information to combat illegal activities. But other experts say Biden's move sets a good framework for more security cooperation, though it remains to be seen whether concrete action will follow.
Affected by several factors, the supply of the graphene powder is erratic and thus its prices are expected to go higher in the future.
An international research team led by the University of Gottingen in Germany published a paper in the latest issue of the journal Nature that found novel quantum effects in their high-precision study of natural bilayer graphene and explained it in theory. This system is easy to prepare and provides new insights into the interaction between carriers and different phases, which is helpful to understand the processes involved and promote the development of quantum computers.
In 2004, two British scientists used a very simple experimental method to remove graphite sheets from graphite and obtained graphene, which consists of only one layer of carbon atoms, with the help of special tape. Graphene is one of the materials with the highest strength, which has good toughness, super thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, and has a broad application prospect. If the two layers of graphene are deflected from each other at a specific angle, the resulting system will even show superconductivity and other excited quantum effects, such as magnetism. But so far, it is difficult to prepare this kind of deflected bilayer graphene.
In the latest research, scientists used naturally formed bilayer graphene. They first used simple tape to separate graphene samples from a piece of graphite. In order to observe the quantum mechanical effect, a high electric field perpendicular to the sample is applied. They found that the electronic structure of the obtained system changed and the charge carriers with similar energy showed a strong cumulative effect.
It is further found that electrons in graphene can interact with each other at slightly above absolute zero (- 273.15 ℃), resulting in a variety of unexpected and complex quantum phases. If the interaction results in electron spin alignment, the material is magnetic without external influence. By changing the electric field, researchers can also constantly change the intensity of carrier interactions in bilayer graphene. In addition, the degree of freedom of electron motion will be limited under certain conditions, forming an electronic lattice, and due to mutual repulsion, it is no longer helpful to transfer charge, resulting in electrical insulation of the system.
Professor Thomas Weitz of the Department of Physics at the University of Gottingen said that one of the main advantages of the new system is that the preparation of materials is very simple, and researchers do not need to obtain the desired results at high temperatures as before. it can be used for further study of various quantum states and quantum computers.
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Because of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, there is a shortage of natural gas supply. At the same time, other renewable energy sources cannot produce enough electricity, so electricity prices have soared in many countries of the world. For this reason, I assume the supply and prices of the graphene powder would keep being influenced by the high energy prices.